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Gutter
The gutter of a book is the place where the two pages are attached to the spine.
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See also leather lined covers
Endleaf - also "End-papers"  or  "End-pages"
Endleaf refers to the material glued to the inside of the case and extending as a fly-leaf before the first page. Endleaf an be plain colored but are often decorated with designs, pictures or other artwork sometimes relating to he theme of the volume.
The endleaf also, helps to attach the case to the book body.
COMMON REPAIR NEEDS
              
BOOK ANATOMY

Case binding

Perfect binding

Spine

Head

Tail

Case

End-leaf, End-pages, End-papers

Headbands

Signature

Cover boards

Cover material

Imprinting

  

Hubs
Hinge
Embossing
Debossing

Book body
Gutter
Half-binding
Three quarter binding
Half-binding
Half binding refers to a multiple piece cover with a less expensive cloth or paper on the cover boards and a more costly and durable material for the spine and corners.
This mostly a cost-saving technique
for large quantities. In hand binding it costs a little more but adds style.
Book body
A book without its case (cover).
The bound pages (possibly including the hinge, headbands and built up spine) but not including the cover.
Embossing
This refers to the technique of stretching the leather material over a shape and burnishing it so that the shape "stands up" or is "raised up" as a design on the leather.
Debossing
Debossing (also known as blind stamping) is similar to imprinting except that after making an impression in the material, no foil is used leaving a rich looking depressed design. The imprinter can also be allowed to heat the leather till it begins to turn color.
Hinge
The "hinge" of a book is the axis on which the covers turn. Or where the cover boards meet the spine.

Inside is a "hinge cloth" which strengthens the hinge and holds the case onto the book body.
Imprinting
Title and or other text or designs printed on the case usually by a hot foil stamping method.
Cover Material
Front & back cover boards are covered with a materials such as paper, cloth, leather or vinyl. Imitation leather can be any of these made to look like leather. Cover materials are specially manufactured for the bookbinding industry to work with various adhesives and printing and imprinting options.
materials
Cover boards
The hard pressed paper core called of a hardcover book. "Binder's board" is normally used.
These are wrapped with a cover material.
Headbands
Headbands are the decorative, colored band of cloth inside the head and tail of the spine.
Historically, headbands were sewn into the book and strengthened the head and tails. In modern books headbands are glued in and mainly decorative, but they do add some strength as well as giving the book a finished or stylish appearance.

 

 

Books with either a hard or flexible cover (not paperbacks)
A "case" is commonly called a "cover".

The term excludes other forms of binding such as perfect binding, post binders, ring binders etc..
Three quarter-binding
In three quarter binding, the book boards are covered in one material while the spine is covered with a more durable and costly material such as cloth or leather.
This mostly a cost-saving technique
for large quantities. In hand binding it costs a little more but adds style.
Case
A "case" is the proper term for the cover of a book. Either a hard cover or a flexible cover such as a Bible cover is a case bound book.
Hubs , Spine hubs, raised spine
Horizontal “bumps’ or 'bands' or 'hubs' on the spine; originally covered the cords the pages were sewn to. Nowadays it is merely decorative.
Hubs can add a classic style to a book cover.

Signature
A group of pages folded and sewn together. A set of signatures sewn together comprise a book or book body.
Head
Tail
The "tail" of a book refers to the bottom [lower] (south) end of the spine
The "head" of a book refers to the top (north) end of the spine.
Spine
The spine is the "backbone" of a book. It is the part where the pages are joined (bound) together, most commonly by sewing or glue.
Perfect binding
Refers primarily to paperback books.
The book body (book without a case) is trimmed on all four edges then glue is applied to one edge. Magazines, and catalogs and books are examples.
Most new books today are perfect bound with a hard or flexible cover (case).